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Chemistry

In Cambridge, most students take chemistry as sophomores.

In Grade 10 Chemistry, instructional time should focus on eight critical areas:

  1. Properties of matter;
  2. Atomic structure;
  3. Periodicity;
  4. Chemical Bonding
  5. Chemical reactions and stoichiometry;
  6. Gases and kinetic molecular theory;
  7. Solutions; and
  8. Acids and Bases
Unit
Broad Concept
Properties of Matter and Thermochemistry (Enthalpy)
  • Physical and chemical properties can be used to classify and describe matter.
  • The driving forces of phase changes and chemical reactions are energy and entropy.
Atomic Structure The model of the atom has changed over time. An atom is a discrete unit. The atomic model can help us understand the interaction of elements and compounds observed on a macroscopic scale.
Periodicity Periodicity of physical and chemical properties relates to atomic structure and led to the development of the periodic table. The periodic table displays the elements in order of increasing atomic number.
Chemical Bonding Atoms form bonds by the interactions of their valance electrons.
Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants.
Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory The behavior of gases can be explained by Kinetic Molecular Theory.
Solutions
Solids, liquids, and gases dissolve to form solutions.
Acids and Bases
Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial processes to biological ones, from the laboratory to the environment.

2013 AP Summer Chemistry Assignment

S201: Chemistry
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Chemistry is designed to teach the properties of matter, including elements, compounds and mixtures. Atomic structure, the physical and chemical characteristics of elements, the classification of elements into families, and the patterns of the periodic table will be addressed. Atomic interaction to form molecules or crystalline solids will be studied, as well as properties of compounds including electrical conductivity and solubility. Chemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction, acid-base and precipitation will be explored both qualitatively and quantitatively. Nuclear chemistry and gas behavior will be studied as well. Lab activities provide physical evidence of chemical theories. Students will prepare lab reports as evidence of understanding of chemical processes and become proficient in technology. Students will prepare and present a book review. Length: One semester; Credits: 10; Prerequisites: Physics and a successful completion of a grade 9 math class

S202: HN Chemistry
The curriculum of Honors Chemistry will address the same topics as S201 in more depth. Rates of reaction and solubility product equilibria will be explored in detail. Electrochemistry and galvanic cells will be studied for standard and non-standard conditions. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs Free Energy will be included in a study of thermodynamics. The mathematics of these topics will be explored. Details of intermolecular attraction such as London Forces, dipole attraction and hydrogen bonding will be studied to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Regular lab reports will be produced as evidence of understanding of the connection between theory and experimental work. Students will prepare a book review, and will demonstrate the practical application of a chemical principle. Length: One semester; Credits: 10; Prerequisites: S101 Physics, Recommendation of Chemistry Teacher and a grade of B or better in freshman math class

S411: Organic Chemistry
This advanced chemistry course addresses structures, reactions and uses of carbon compounds. The classes of carbon chain and ring molecules will be studied with emphasis on stereo chemistry, reactivity and reaction mechanisms. The practical applications of hydrocarbons and biomolecules will be explored, and laboratory activities will be performed. Familiarity with organic chemistry is excellent preparation for all types of medical careers. Length: One semester (first semester only); Credits: 10; Prerequisites: B or better grade in Chemistry and Biology

S502: AP Chemistry
This course is designed to teach chemistry at the college freshman level and prepare students for the AP Chemistry Exam. Emphasis will be on inorganic chemistry, atomic structure, bonding, reactions, periodicity and equilibrium. Laboratory experiments are an integral part of the course. Students should be prepared to do university level work. Length: Year; Credits: 20 (one distributional course requirement); Prerequisites: Physics, Chemistry and Biology and previous or concurrent enrollment in Pre-calculus