# Kindergarten Critical Areas

CRITICAL AREA #1: Representing, relating and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects
Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.

The standards below relate to this Critical Area:

 Counting and Cardinality K.CC Know number names and the count sequence. K.CC.1 K.CC.2 K.CC.3 Counting and Cardinality K.CC Count to tell the number of objects. K.CC.4a, b, c K.CC.5 Counting and Cardinality K.CC Compare numbers. K.CC.6 K.CC.7 Operations and Algebraic Thinking K.OA Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. K.OA.1 K.OA.2 K.OA.3 K.OA.4 K.OA.5 Numbers and Operations in Base Ten K.NBT Work with numbers 11–19 to gain foundations for place value. K.NBT.1

CRITICAL AREA #2: Describing shapes and space
Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.

The standards below relate to this Critical Area:

 Measurement and Data K.MD Describe and compare measurable attributes. K.MD.1 K.MD.2 Measurement and Data K.MD Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category. K.MD.3 Geometry K.G Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres). K.G.1 K.G.2 K.G.3 Geometry K.G Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes. K.G.4 K.G.5 K.G.6